The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms, and legs.

Male Complete Anatomy

The human body is a complex structure made of thousands of distinct parts. These components can be organized based on regions, such as head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and limbs, or based on similar functions, such as respiration or circulation. By working together, these structures enable humans to survive and reproduce.

Female Complete Anatomy

The human body is a complex structure made of thousands of distinct parts. These components can be organized based on regions, such as head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and limbs, or based on similar functions, such as respiration or circulation. By working together, these structures enable humans to survive and reproduce.

Breathing with Beating Heart

When you’re short of breath, it’s hard or uncomfortable for you to take in the oxygen your body needs. You may feel as if you’re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise.

But shortness of breath can also be a sign of a serious disease. Many conditions can make you feel short of breath. Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties.

So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part of your airway system. Heart disease can make you feel breathless if your heart cannot pump enough blood to supply oxygen to your body. Stress caused by anxiety can also make it hard for you to breathe. If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause. (source: NIH Medline Plus)


Housed within the protective covering of the skull, the brain is the most complex organ in the body. It controls thought, behavior, emotions, and memory, as well as basic life functions such as breathing and heart rate.

The brain’s surface, called the cerebral cortex, is folded into a series of gyri (hills) and sulci (valleys). These features increase the amount of neurons (brain cells) that can fit within the skull.

Breathing Dynamics with Heart

Breathing is the act of inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide.

During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward. This increases the amount of space in the thoracic cavity, enabling the lungs to expand. As the lungs expand, the air is drawn in through the nose and mouth and flows through the trachea to the lungs.

During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes. This decreases the amount of space in the thoracic cavity and the lungs compress. Compression of the lungs forces carbon dioxide from the lungs out through the nose and mouth.

Chest movement during breathing helps move air into the small alveoli (air sacs) within the lungs so oxygen-carbon dioxide gas exchange can take place.

As the heart beats, deoxygenated blood from the body is delivered to the heart. The “used” deoxygenated blood is pumped into the lungs to receive oxygen.

Oxygenated blood travels from the lungs back into the heart and is pumped out to supply the rest of the body.

Normal Visual Pathway with Eye Movement

The visual system contains the eyes, optic nerves, optic tracts, and visual cortex. These structures help receive, transmit, and process visual stimuli. Visual stimuli travel from the environment to the brain via the visual pathway.

Once sensory stimuli reach the retina, this information is passed out of the eye via the optic nerve. After traveling through the optic nerve, some visual signals cross sides at the optic chiasm. The signals then travel through the optic tracts and synapse in the lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus. From the thalamus, visual signals travel through the white matter and out to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.

Though not directly involved in the visual pathway, six extraocular muscles attach to the eyeball and control the movements of the eye. The extraocular muscles are supplied by cranial nerves and help position the eyes to enhance visual acuity.

The Human Body

The Digestive System

The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, growth and sexual function.

The Immune System

The immune system is the body’s defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that may be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells and T-cells), the thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

The Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and lymph vessels, and also plays a role in the body’s defenses. Its main job is to make and move lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The lymphatic system also removes excess lymph fluid from bodily tissues and returns it to the blood.

The Nervous System

The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and involuntary actions (like breathing) and sends signals to different parts of the body. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.

The Body’s Muscular

The body’s muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in movement, blood flow, and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected to the bone and helps with voluntary movement, the smooth muscle which is found inside organs and helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart and helps pump blood.

The Reproductive System

The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes the penis and the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, the uterus, and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and grows in the uterus.

The Skeletal System

Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones that are connected by tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. The skeleton not only helps us move, but it’s also involved in the production of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also part of the skeletal system, but they aren’t considered bones.

The Respiratory System

The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a process we call breathing. It consists mainly of the trachea, the diaphragm, and the lungs.

The Urinary System

The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the body, which is produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys travels down the ureters to the bladder and exits the body through the urethra.

The skin, or integumentary system, is the body’s largest organ. It protects us from the outside world and is our first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In addition to skin, the integumentary system includes hair and nails.

Vital Organs

  • Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival. These are the brain, heart, kidneys, liver , nd lungs.
  • The human brain is the body’s control center, receiving and sending signals to other organs through the nervous system and through secreted hormones. It is responsible for our thoughts, feelings, memory storage and general perception of the world.
  • The human heart is a responsible for pumping blood throughout our body.
  • The job of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The kidneys take urea out of the blood and combine it with water and other substances to make urine.
  • The liver has many functions, including detoxifying of harmful chemicals, the breakdown of drugs, filtering of blood, secretion of bile and production of blood-clotting proteins.
  • The lungs are responsible for removing oxygen from the air we breathe and transferring it to our blood where it can be sent to our cells. The lungs also remove carbon dioxide, which we exhale.

Fun facts

  • The human body contains nearly 100 trillion cells.
  • There are at least 10 times as many bacteria in the human body as cells.
  • The average adult takes over 20,000 breaths a day.
  • Each day, the kidneys process about 200 quarts (50 gallons) of blood to filter out about 2 quarts of waste and water
  • Adults excrete about a quarter and a half (1.42 liters) of urine each day.
  • The human brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells
  • Water makes up more than 50 percent of the average adult’s body weight

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